"Sea surface temperature" is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface. The exact meaning of "surface" varies according to the measurement method used, but it is between 1 mm and 20 m below the sea surface. Air masses in the Earth's atmosphere are highly modified by sea surface temperatures within a short distance of the shore. Localized areas of heavy snow can form in bands downwind of warm water bodies within an otherwise cold air mass. Warm sea surface temperatures are known to be a cause of tropical cyclogenesis over the Earth's oceans. Tropical cyclones can also cause a cool wake, due to turbulent mixing of the upper 30 m of the ocean. SST changes diurnally, like the air above it, but to a lesser degree due to its higher specific heat. There is less SST variation on breezy days than on calm days. In addition, ocean currents such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation , can effect SST's on multi-decadal time scales, a major impact results from the global thermohaline circulation, which affects average SST significantly throughout most of the world's oceans.
Coastal SSTs can cause offshore winds to generate upwelling, which can significantly cool or warm nearby landmasses, but shallower waters over a continental shelf are often warmer. Onshore winds can cause a considerable warm-up even in areas where upwelling is fairly constant, such as the northwest coast of South America. Its values are important within numerical weather prediction as the SST influences the atmosphere above, such as in the formation of sea breezes and sea fog. It is also used to calibrate measurements from weather satellites.
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Offshore projects are a strategic line of Rosneft’s business activity. Rosneft is a pioneer in the development of the Russian shelf. Most of the fields of the Sakhalin shelf have been discovered with the participation of the Companys specialists. The deposits of the world-famous Russian offshore projects "Sakhalin-1" and "Sakhalin-2", as well as the Kirinskoye field, were in course of geological prospecting works of 1975-1993. In 1998, Rosneft specialists drilled Russia’s first horizontal well with an extended reach from the Sakhalin shore, in the Odoptu-Sea, the North Dome, therefore starting the oil production at the continental shelf.
Today, the Company is the largest subsoil user on the Russian shelf: as of January 1, 2017, owns 55 licenses for the water areas of the Arctic, Far Eastern and Southern seas of Russia. The hydrocarbon resources in these areas are estimated at 41.5 billion tons of oil equivalent. The Company also implements the offshore project in the Black Sea, off the coast of the Republic of Abkhazia; explores and produces hydrocarbons on the Vietnam shelf; participates in projects on the shelves of Norway, Mozambique and Venezuela.
The main regions of Rosneft’s license blocks:
Western Arctic - Barents, Pechora and Kara Seas (19 projects) Eastern Arctic - Laptev Sea, East Siberian and Chukchi Seas (9 projects) Far East - Sea of Okhotsk and Sea of Japan (20 projects) Russian Southern seas - Black, Azov and Caspian seas (8 projects)
As of 01/01/2017, the Company conducts geological exploration of subsoil resources in 45 license blocks located on the Russian shelf and inland seas of Russia. 10 licenses were issued for the exploration and production of oil and gas, including the production of hydrocarbons at 7 sites. License obligations have been delivered in full.
Today, Rosneft’s key oil and gas production projects on the Russian continental shelf are Sakhalin-1, the Northern part of the Chaivo and Northern Dome of the Odoptu-Sea deposits .